Stainless Steel 316 or Stainless Steel 316L is an improved version of stainless steel 304, with the addition of molybdenum and a slightly higher nickel content. The resultant composition of stainless steel 316 gives the steel much increased corrosion resistance in many aggressive environments. The molybdenum makes the steel more resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-contaminated media, sea water and acetic acid vapours. The lower rate of general corrosion in mildly corrosive environments gives the steel good atmospheric corrosion resistance in polluted marine atmospheres.
stainless steel 316 offers higher strength and better creep resistance at higher temperatures than stainless steel 304. stainless steel 316 also possesses excellent mechanical and corrosion properties at sub-zero temperatures. When there is a danger of corrosion in the heat-affected zones of weldments, the low-carbon variety stainless steel 316L should be used. stainless steel 316 Ti, the titanium-stabilised version, is used for its resistance to sensitization during prolonged exposure in the 550oC-800oC temperature range.
Because of its superior corrosion and oxidation resistance, good mechanical properties and fabricability, stainless steel 316 has applications in many sectors of industry. Some of these include:
Tanks and storage vessels for corrosive liquids.
Specialised process equipment in the chemical, food, paper, mining, pharmaceutical and petroleum industries.
Architectural applications in highly corrosive environments.
Scrubbers for environmental control
Duct works, stainless steel pipes, sewage water filters
Heat exchanger stainless steel u tubes, ozone generators
Stainless Steel Flanges
Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings
Chemical Composition (ASTM A 240)
Typical properties in the annealed condition
The properties quoted in this publication are typical of mill products and unless indicated must not be regarded as guaranteed minimum values for specification purposes.
1. Mechanical properties at room temperature
2. Properties at elevated temperatures
The values given refer to stainless steel 316 and stainless steel 316 Ti only as strength values for stainless steel 316L fall rapidly above 425oC.
Short Time Elevated Temperature Tensile Strength
Stress for a creep rate of 1% in 10 000 h
Recommended Maximum Service Temperature
Continuous Service 925oC
Intermittent Service 870oC
3. Properties at Sub-Zero Temperatures
( Stainless Steel 316 )
4. Corrosion Resistance
For specific conditions, consult VRN technical staff. As a rough guide, the following examples are given
for pure acid-water mixtures.
Key: 0 = resistant – corrosion rate less than 100 >mm/year
1 = partly resistant – corrosion rate 100 m to 1000 >mm/year
2 = non resistant – corrosion rate more than 1000 mm/year
The performance of stainless steel 316 compared with other metals in various environments is shown in the
following table. Corrosion rate is based on a 5 year exposure.
Note: For corrosion resistance of stainless steel 316 relative to other types, see the section in Comparative Data.
4.3.1 Annealing. Heat from 1 010oC to 1 120oC and cool rapidly in air or water. The best corrosion
resistance is obtained when the final annealing temperature is above 1 070oC.
4.3.2 Stress relieving. Heat from 200 – 400oC and air cool.
4.3.3 Hot working
Initial forging and pressing: 1150 – 1200oC
Finishing temperature: above 900oC
For upsetting operations, forgings
should be finished between: 930 and 980oC
All hot working operations should be followed by annealing.
Note: Soaking times to ensure uniformity of temperature are up to 12 times that required for the same thickness of mild steel.
Stainless Steel 316/316L, being extremely tough and ductile, can be readily fabricated by cold working. Typical operations include bending, forming, deep drawing and upsetting.
Typical product applications:
- Heat Exchangers
- Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings
Stainless Steel Pipes
- Pressure Vessels
- Stainless Steel Valves
- Stainless Steel Flanges
Typical industrial sectors:
- Chemical Industry
- Food processing
- Marine equipment
All 316/316L at Yaang Pipe is certified to 316/316L which we stock at our warehouse in the CN with the capabilities to supply directly to countries across the world in all Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, and Stainless Steel Pipes.
Source: Zhejiang Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.yaang.com)